EJ251 Tuning Part 1: Engine Size, Fuel Type and Injectors

Configuring injector settings is one of the first things to do when setting up your base map. The two main parameters for configuration injectors are ‘Load Scalar’ and ‘Airflow Scalar’. These should also be updated if the engine’s size (displacement) has been changed or you’re running a fuel other than straight gasoline.

For easy reference, I’ve done the calculations for some commonly used injectors so that you don’t have to. Just copy and paste the numbers into your current tune.

These load and airflow scalars were calculated a 2.5L engine running on gasoline. If you’ve got a different engine displacement or are running a fuel other than gasoline (such as E85), see the parameter explanations after the table.

Latency Latency
Top Feed Injector Part Number Color Flow Rate (cc) Load Scalar Airflow Scalar Slope (ms/V) Offset (ms)
EJ251 16611AA430 Grey 280 0.0723 0.9621 0.10 1.76
EJ205 16611AA521 Light blue 420 0.0482 1.4432 0.12 2.36
EJ207 16611AA510 Pink 550 0.0368 1.8899 0.12 2.36
EJ255/EJ257 16611AA720 Dark blue 550 0.0368 1.8899 0.13 2.62

Latency Latency
Side Feed Injector Part Number Color Flow Rate (cc) Load Scalar Airflow Scalar Slope (ms/V) Offset (ms)
EJ205/EJ207 16611AA370 Yellow 500 0.0405 1.7181 0.11 2.03
EJ255/EJ257 16600AA170 Yellow 500 0.0405 1.7181 0.11 2.14

Note: Flow rates are estimated based on ECU data. Use flow test data when available.

 

Load and Airflow Scalars

These two parameters can be found under ‘Configuration’ in the map tree. The ‘load scalar’ is a combination of injector flow rate, engine displacement and stoichiometric ratio all in one parameter.  It is used to calculate how much fuel is needed based on the volumetric efficiency map. ‘Airflow scalar’ is used to calculate the mass airflow of the engine from engine load and engine speed (RPM).

How to calculate what your new load and airflow scalars should be:

For an injector change:

NEW LOAD SCALAR = OLD LOAD SCALAR x (OLD INJECTOR SIZE / NEW INJECTOR SIZE)

NEW AIRFLOW SCALAR = OLD AIRFLOW SCALAR x (NEW INJECTOR SIZE / OLD INJECTOR SIZE)

For an engine displacement change:

NEW LOAD SCALAR = OLD LOAD SCALAR x (NEW DISPLACEMENT / OLD DISPLACEMENT)

For a stoichiometric ratio change:

NEW LOAD SCALAR = OLD LOAD SCALAR x (OLD STOICH RATIO / NEW STOICH RATIO)

NEW AIRFLOW SCALAR = OLD AIRFLOW SCALAR x (NEW STOICH RATIO / OLD STOICH RATIO)

For multiple changes you can chain the equations together in any order to get the final value.

 

Injector Latency

Fuel injectors don’t open instantly. There is a lag time between when the ‘on’ signal is sent and when the fuel injector fully opens. This is called ‘Injector Latency’. This latency changes with voltage. At lower voltages, the injector will take longer to open. At higher voltage, it opens faster.

To compensate for injector latency and inject the correct amount of fuel, the ECU adds latency to the fuel injector pulse width.

If you’ve swapped injectors you will need to use the latency values for the new injectors. Incorrect latency settings can cause fueling consistency problems. This is most noticeable at idle and low engine load.

The following equation describes how the ECU calculates injector latency:

LATENCY = OFFSET - (SLOPE x VOLTAGE)

‘Slope’ and ‘Offset’ are two parameters which can be modified by re-flashing. They are found under the ‘Fuel Injectors’ group in the map tree. Slope determines how quickly the latency falls with increasing voltage. Offset is the starting point from which the slope subtracts.

 

Cranking Base Injector Pulse Width

This map is found under the ‘Fuel – Base’ group. It sets the injector pulse width when starting the engine. Scale the entire map down when using larger injectors. Do the opposite for smaller injectors. These values already include injector latency, so you may want to take that into account when making changes. Once the engine gets to about 400 rpm the ECU will stop using this map and switch over to regular pulse width calculations.

 

Minimum Injector Pulse Width

Also found under the ‘Fuel Injectors’ group. This limits the minimum pulse width that the ECU is allowed to use. When pulse width times get very low, the injector doesn’t fully open and the flow rate won’t be accurate. If you’ve got larger injectors you may find reducing this helps solve rich conditions at low load and idle.

 

Posted in EJ251, Tuning.

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